Manchester United Football Club is an English football club based in the Trafford district, near the city of Manchester. Founded in 1878 under the name of Newton Heath, Manchester United operates at Old Trafford, its historic stadium, which takes its nickname “Theater of Dreams” from the exploits achieved over the years by the Mancunian club.
One of the most followed football clubs on the planet2 and particularly appreciated by a large number of international celebrities, Manchester United is also the one generating the most income. Indeed, with an estimated revenue of 1.4 billion dollars and an overall value of 2.7 billion dollars in May 20153, Manchester is just ahead of Real Madrid and FC Barcelona, making it one of the most powerful football institution. The club is also one of the founders of the European Association of Clubs.
Manchester United has the longest track record in English football, having won the English Championship twenty times. The club have also won twelve FA Cups, five English League Cups, twenty-one Community Shields, three Champions Leagues, one Cup of Cups, one Europa League, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup. and a Club World Cup.
The club was founded on March 5, 1878 under the name “Newton Heath LYR F.C.”. It was then a corporate team from the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (LYR). The club is making a name for itself locally and wants to join the League. It will not be accepted until the third request in 1892.
After a few difficult years, the club finally got some financial power thanks to a brewer, John Henry Davies, who invested in the club and recruited new players and new management. The decision to change the name is then taken, Manchester Central is proposed as well as Manchester Celtic: the two proposals are rejected in favor of a name which will become famous, Manchester United Football Club. In 1902, Newton Heath therefore officially changed its name, and therefore its colors. Indeed, the club abandons green and gold for red and white.
In 1908, the team, coached by Ernest Mangnall and made up in particular of Turnbull, Bannister, Burgess and Charlie Roberts won their first English league title. A year later, the club won the England Cup by beating Bristol City 1-0. It is a good time for the supporters who also have the right to a new stadium: the club is moving to Old Trafford (now known as the Theater of Dreams).
The 1920s and 1930s were difficult decades for United. The club went down to the second division in 1922, struggling to stay there, stabilizing in the middle of the league table. In 1927, a mini-crisis occurs, the fans threatening to boycott the club. To cope with the situation, the possibility of selling the stadium was even under consideration, and in the same year, businessman James Gibson paid off the £ 2,000 debt and took control of the club.
But the sporting miracle did not happen despite the hiring of a new coach, Scott Duncan, and in 1934 the club were close to descending to the third division. Back to the wall, Manchester United face Millwall on May 5 while on the other side, Manchester City, the long-standing rival club, qualify for the FA Cup final thanks to Matt Busby.
Manchester United climbed up and ended up moving up to the Premier League in 1939, just as the war began. During the war, Old Trafford was bombed and lay in ruins.
The Busby years (1945-1969)
In 1945, Matt Busby arrived. He is innovative in his strategy by deciding on the recruitment of new players and directing training and surrounds himself with an assistant: Jimmy Murphy. Busby’s early years were a success, with the club reaching runner-up and FA Cup victory in 1948, thanks to players from the region: Stan Pearson, Jack Rowley, Charlie Mitten and Allenby Chilton.
Charlie Mitten left for Colombia, but his former teammates won the championship in 1952. However, Busby understood that the team needed more experience and he opted for the youth. This policy took time to produce positive results, but Manchester United won the championship again in 1956 with an average age side of 22, scoring 103 goals, a Manchester United record. Players of this golden generation will be nicknamed the Busby Babes. This youth achievement is symbolized by Duncan Edwards, who made his debut at just 16 years old. The following season, 1956-57, the club won the championship again, but lost in the FA Cup final against Aston Villa. Manchester United also becomes the first English club to participate in the European Cup of Champions Clubs, against the will of the English federation, and loses against Real Madrid in the semi-final. Previously, MU achieved its biggest European score by beating Belgian champion RSC Anderlecht 10-0 at Maine Road.
The following year, the club experienced the greatest tragedy in its history. On February 6, 1958, eight players were killed in the Munich air crash: Geoff Bent, Roger Byrne, Eddie Colman, Duncan Edwards, Mark Jones, David Pegg, Tommy Taylor and Liam Whelan – and fifteen others were injured: Walter Crickmer, Bert Whalley and Tom Curry, coaches, are among them. Goalkeeper Harry Gregg saves Bobby Charlton and Dennis Viollet by dragging them from the plane door, Johnny Berry also survives the crash, but retires from sports due to his injuries, and Matt Busby spends two months to the hospital.
The same year, Manchester United played in the FA Cup final, but lost to Bolton Wanderers. UEFA gives Manchester United the opportunity to play in the European Champion Clubs’ Cup the following season, but the English federation refuse. MU finished runner-up the following season with a team decimated by the Munich disaster.
Busby rebuilt his team during the 1960s, recruiting new players like Denis Law or Pat Crerand, and trusting new youngsters, the most famous of which was George Best. MU won the English Cup in 1963, but finished 19th in the championship. However, in 1964 the club returned to the top of the ranking by reaching second place. That same year, the club faced a terrible disillusionment on the European stage in the Cups Cup, Manchester United was eliminated by Sporting Portugal. Winners at Old Trafford with a comfortable 4-1 lead, the Mancuniens suffered the club’s worst defeat on the European scene, 0-5 on the return.
The club were crowned English champions in 1965 and 1967. MU won the European Champion Clubs’ Cup in 1968, beating SL Benfica d’Eusébio 4-1 in the final after extra time, becoming the first English club to win this competition. . This team contains three Golden Ball winners: Bobby Charlton, Denis Law and George Best. Matt Busby retired in 1969 and Wilf McGuinness replaced him.
Years without a championship (1969-1986)
MU is therefore rebuilding itself after the departure of Matt Busby and with Wilf McGuinness (in) in 1969-70, finishing eighth in the league, and after a bad start in 1970-71, McGuinness disembarked from the first team and took care of from the reserve and Busby returns for a six-month freelance. Results improved under Busby, but he left in the summer of 1971. As a result, MU lost some of his best players, such as Nobby Stiles and Pat Crerand.
Jock Stein, who had led Celtic Glasgow to victory in the European Cup, accepts the job of coach in Manchester, but he will be fired and Frank O’Farrell replaces him. However, like McGuinness, O’Farrell will stay there for 18 months, the only difference between the two is O’Farrell’s reaction to buying new players, like Aberdeen’s Martin Buchan paying £ 125,000. In 1972, Tommy Docherty (nicknamed “the Doc”) became coach and saved MU from relegation that season but could not escape it in 1974 after the departures of Best, Law and Charlton. Denis Law moved to Manchester City in the summer of 1973, and scored a goal that would relegate his former club MU. Players like Lou Macari, Stuart Houston and Brian Greenhoff try to replace Best, Law and Charlton without success.
The team rises immediately with the young Steve Coppell who arrives from Tranmere Rovers and with him the club reached the final of the FA Cup in 1976 (lost to Southampton). The club reached the final again in 1977 and beat Liverpool. Despite this achievement and his popularity with fans, Docherty was fired right after the final due to an affair with the physiotherapist’s wife.
Dave Sexton replaced Docherty in 1977 and set up a defensive game, unpopular because of the club’s past which advocated attacking play under Docherty and Busby. The major transfers are Joe Jordan, Gordon McQueen, Gary Bailey and Ray Wilkins, but MU remains in the league’s mid-table and Sexton is sacked in 1981, despite winning his last seven games.
Ron Atkinson arrives at the club and immediately breaks the British transfer record by buying Bryan Robson, who is said to be the best midfielder since Duncan Edwards. The Atkinson squad also features Jesper Olsen, Paul McGrath and Gordon Strachan, and club-trained players Norman Whiteside and Mark Hughes. In 1984, Manchester reached the semi-finals of the Cup and lost to the future winner, the Italian club Juventus Turin with a score of 1-1 on the first leg and 1-2 on the return leg. United went on to win the FA Cup in 1985, having lost it in the final in 1983, and became favorites to win the championship in 1986 after ten wins in the first ten matches, but only finished fourth. After a bad start the following year, Atkinson was sacked before the end of the season.
The era of Alex Ferguson (1986-2013)
Alex Ferguson arrives from Aberdeen FC to replace Atkinson and leads the club to eleventh place. The following season in 1988, MU finished runner-up, with Brian McClair becoming the first player since George Best to score 20 league goals in a season. However, MU struggled the next two seasons. Alex Ferguson was set to be sacked in 1990 but was saved by a Mark Robins goal giving MU a third round FA Cup victory over Nottingham Forest. The team continues to win and takes the cup against Crystal Palace.
Manchester won the Cup of Cups in 1991, beating Spanish champions FC Barcelona in the final. Lacking form the following season, the club finished second in the league behind Leeds United. In 1991, the club went public for a value of £ 47 million.
The arrival of Eric Cantona in November 1992 gives hope to the club, as well as the experience of Gary Pallister, Denis Irwin and Paul Ince and finally young people trained at the club like Ryan Giggs. Manchester United won the championship in 1993 for the first time since 1967, and achieved the league double for the first time the following season, helped by new player Roy Keane, a determined midfielder from Nottingham Forest who would become captain. On the other hand, the same year, the club sank into depression after the death of its legendary coach and president Matt Busby, who died on January 20, 1994.
The treble (1998-1999)
Manchester United’s 1998-1999 season was the most successful in English football history as they became the first club to win both the Championship, the FA Cup and the Champions League.
The club won the league on the final matchday by beating Tottenham Hotspur 2-1, while Arsenal despite their 1-0 win over Aston Villa finished by one point5. In the FA Cup final, MU defeated Newcastle United 2-0 thanks to goals from Teddy Sheringham and Paul Scholes6. Finally, in the final of the Champions League, the Mancuniens beat Bayern Munich having been led 1-0 in the 6th minute before equalizing and taking the advantage in stoppage time in the second period7,8. On November 30, 1999, they also won the Intercontinental Cup, beating SE Palmeiras 1-0 in Tokyo.
Golden years (1999-2013)
Manchester United easily won the championship in 2000 and 2001, with 18 points then 10 points ahead of Arsenal but failed twice in the quarterfinals of the Champions League. In 2000, Manchester founded the G 14 with thirteen other major European clubs10. The club are refusing to take part in the FA Cup in order to participate in the Club World Cup due to pressure from the FA and UEFA. Ferguson adopted a more defensive tactic in 2002 in order to win the Champions League, but that jeopardized the chances of the team domestically finishing in third place. After another league victory in 2003, David Beckham moved to Real Madrid after a locker room argument with Alex Ferguson11. In 2004, Rio Ferdinand was suspended for eight months for having avoided an anti-doping control12. The Mancuniens however won the English Cup by beating Millwall 3-0 in the final.
In 2004-2005, the club did not win any trophy, notably losing the FA Cup final on penalties to Arsenal. The Red Devils see American businessman Malcolm Glazer gaining part of the control in the club through his investment firm Red Football Ltd through a takeover bid valuing the club at around £ 800million.13,14 On May 16, he increased his share to the 75% needed in order to be able to remove the club from the stock market, making it private again, and announced his intention to do so within 20 days. On June 8, he appointed his son to head Manchester United as non-executive director15. The acquisition of the club by the Glazer family was carried out largely thanks to the loan, the financial arrangement being of the LBO type.
The following year, Manchester United started the season badly: the club did not qualify for the second round of the Champions League for the first time in a decade. However, a tactical change allows the club to finish the season well and win the English League Cup by beating Wigan 4-0. After Roy Keane who left the club at the start of the year after publicly criticizing some young players17,18, Ruud van Nistelrooy also announces his departure at the end of the year after an argument with Alex Ferguson19.
In 2007, Manchester won the championship thanks to attacking football scoring 20 more goals than Chelsea who finished second. Hopes for another hat-trick were shattered when AC Milan knocked them out in the Champions League semi-finals before Chelsea won the FA Cup by beating United, 1-0.
After last year’s mishap, the club won the championship in the 2007-2008 season for the 17th time at the end of the final day of the championship, edging Chelsea by just two points. During the year, Cristiano Ronaldo explodes by scoring 42 goals in all competitions. On May 21, 2008, the Reds won the Champions League against Chelsea after a thrilling final that ended on penalties (6-5, 1-1 after regulation time). The victory comes 100 years after Manchester United’s first title, 50 years after the Munich disaster and 40 years after the first European Cup won. During this match, Ryan Giggs, who entered mid-game, surpasses Bobby Charlton’s record for appearances by appearing for the 759th time. The Welshman thus enters a little more into the legend of the club.
The following two seasons, the club won an 18th English league title in the 2008-2009 season – which places it at the level of Liverpool in the number of titles won, fails in the defeated 2008-2009 Champions League final by FC Barcelona (2-0), lost the championship by one point in 2009-2010 and won the English League Cup by beating Aston Villa. The club also see Carlos Tévez leaving for Manchester City and also Cristiano Ronaldo leaving for Real Madrid for a record sum of 97 million euros.
After Ferguson (since 2013)
A complicated transition (2013-2016)
On May 8, 2013, Alex Ferguson officially announced his retirement, which took effect at the end of the 2012-20132 season. He is replaced by David Moyes, the former Everton coach for an initial period of six years23,24. However, the latter remained only eleven months at the head of the club and left it on April 22, 2014, the fault of poor results25. Despite the purchase of Juan Mata during the winter transfer window26, the club finished 7th in the championship, was eliminated in the third round of the FA Cup, was eliminated in the semi-final of the League Cup and was eliminated in the quarter-finals of the League. champions. Ryan Giggs, Moyes’ assistant, was then in charge of acting until the end of the season27.
Eager to return to the top, the Mancunian leaders hired the Dutchman Louis van Gaal for three years28, making him the first non-British coach to lead the club. Four club legends who total 2047 games in Manchester United jersey are leaving the club: Ryan Giggs (retired), Nemanja Vidić (end of contract), Rio Ferdinand (end of contract) and Patrice Évra (1.5 million euros + 0.4M bonus). To compensate for their departure, more than 190 million euros are spent on midfielder Ander Herrera (36 million euros, Athletic Bilbao), left-back Luke Shaw (32.5 million euros + 5M bonus, Southampton FC) , defender Marcos Rojo (20 million euros, Sporting Portugal), midfielder Ángel Di María (75 million euros, Real Madrid CF, who thus becomes the most expensive rookie in Premier League history), defender Daley Blind (18 million euros, Ajax Amsterdam) and finally striker Radamel Falcao (10 million euros loan with option to buy 55 million euros, AS Monaco). Inconsistent, Van Gaal’s troops end the season in fourth place in the Premier League with 70 points (20 wins, 10 draws, 8 losses). The club’s goal of regaining the Champions League has therefore been achieved.
In the summer of 2015, the team continues to be shaped with a large budget. The young Dutch winger Memphis Depay (Eredivisie champion and top scorer with 22 goals) is recruited for 32 million euros and inherits the legendary number 7 jersey, worn among others by David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo and Eric Cantona. The club continues its transfer window by signing the Italian defender Matteo Darmian (from Torino Football Club) for 18 million euros as well as two midfielders, the German Bastian Schweinsteiger (from Bayern Munich, bought 18 million euros ) and the French Morgan Schneiderlin (Southampton Football Club, for 32 million euros). At the same time, the club sell striker Robin van Persie to Fenerbahçe SK. At the end of the transfer window, the club bought the young French striker Anthony Martial, from AS Monaco, for an amount of 50 million euros (+ 30M bonus).
Despite a 12th FA Cup won in 2016, the club separated from Louis van Gaal on 23 May 2016, the latter having notably failed to qualify the team for the Champions League29. He was then replaced by the Portuguese technician José Mourinho.
A gradual return to the foreground (since 2016)
José Mourinho’s first season as club coach is successful in terms of titles won with a hat-trick. Indeed, the Mancunians first glean the Community Shield, against the defending champion Leicester, on the score of 2-131, the League Cup against Southampton 3-232, and especially the Europa League, by beating in the final Ajax Amsterdam, 2-033, making the Red Devils the fifth club to win the three European competitions, namely the Champions League, the Cup of the Cups and the Europa League, after Juventus in 1985, l Ajax Amsterdam and Bayern Munich in 1996, then Chelsea in 201334. The Mancuniens therefore find the Champions League and qualify for the UEFA Super Cup. During the summer transfer window, the Red Devils bought Ivorian defender Éric Bailly35 (Villarreal, € 38m), Swedish striker Zlatan Ibrahimović36 at the end of his contract with Paris Saint-Germain, midfielder Henrikh Mkhitaryan37 (Borussia Dortmund, € 40m) and formalized the return of French international Paul Pogba for the record sum of € 105m (+ € 5m bonus) from Juventus.
The winter transfer window sees the departure of Dutch striker Memphis Depay38 to Olympique Lyonnais, French midfielder Morgan Schneiderlin39 to Everton and German midfielder Bastian Schweinsteiger to the Chicago Fire club (Major League Soccer). The results are more mixed in the league with a sixth place; Manchester United are eliminated in the quarter-finals of the FA Cup against Chelsea.
In a match against Stoke City (final score 1-1), Wayne Rooney entered Manchester United legend by scoring his 250th goal in Model: 546, becoming the club’s top scorer in history. He was finally sold to his training club, Everton, during the 2017 summer transfer window. José Mourinho then recruited Swedish defender Victor Lindelöf from Benfica Lisbon, Belgian striker Romelu Lukaku (2nd top scorer in the championship the previous season), from Everton and Serbian midfielder Nemanja Matić (Chelsea). The club’s 2017-18 season begins with a 1-2 loss to Real Madrid in the UEFA Super Cup, despite a goal from Romelu Lukaku.
During the winter of 2018, Manchester United and Arsenal conduct an exchange between Henrikh Mkhitaryan and Alexis Sánchez without additional transfer fees. Alexis Sanchez becomes the club’s new number 7, left free after Memphis Depay left a year earlier. A few months later, Ibrahimovic was terminated by the club. Les Mancuniens end the 2017-18 fiscal year with a total of 81 points (25 wins, 6 draws, 7 losses), the highest total since the departure of Alex Ferguson. Despite playing regularly subject to criticism (deemed too defensive), Manchester United began to regain the top, playing in the Champions League in the group stages for the second season in a row, a first since the retirement of Ferguson.
During the summer transfer window that follows, José Mourinho makes the purchase of several players like Fred or Diogo Dalot. The Mancunian club also sees leaving Michael Carrick (retirement) or Daley Blind (transfer to Ajax Amsterdam for 16 million euros). Following a too negative start to the season, the Portuguese coach was sacked and replaced by three former Manchester United players: Ole Gunnar Solskjær, assisted by Mike Phelan (already a former assistant to Ferguson) and Michael Carrick. Marouane Fellaini was then transferred to Shandong Luneng Taishan for 10 million euros during the winter transfer window.
On March 6, 2019, Manchester United made an unprecedented comeback in the Champions League against Paris SG by winning the return match at the Parc des Princes by 3 goals to 1 (0-2 loss in the first leg); indeed, in the history of the competition, no team had qualified for the next round having lost the first leg 0-2 at home40. The feat is all the more commented on as Manchester United played with a largely overhauled team, made up of several players from the training center such as Mason Greenwood and Tahith Chong, who played their first minutes in the Champions League (Greenwood even playing his first minutes in pro); this team reshuffle follows the absence of nine senior players (such as Anthony Martial and Jesse Lingard, injured, or Paul Pogba, suspended after a red card in the first leg).
On March 28, 2019, Ole Gunnar Solskjær is confirmed as a full-time coach after signing a three-year contract. Ed Woodward, Executive Vice President, said: “Since Ole took over the team in December, the results speak for him.” 41. Mike Phelan signed his contract on May 10, 2019 as Solskjær’s first assistant.
The end of the season is more difficult, with a sixth place in the league and an elimination in the quarter-finals of the Champions League against FC Barcelona (defeat 4-0, cumulative scores). Ecuadorian captain Antonio Valencia and Spaniard Ander Herrera are leaving the club as their contracts have not been renewed. In the last game of the season, Mason Greenwood made his first Premier League start at the age of 17 and 223 days, making him the youngest Manchester United player to start a Premier League game.
After a difficult start to the season in the league, (12th after the 8th day), Manchester United relaunched by buying Bruno Fernandes from Sporting CP during the winter transfer window, and ended the 2019-2020 season in 3rd place, qualifying for the Ligue des champions, a particular season due to the Covid-19 pandemic which results in several months of interruption. However, the Mancuniens fail at the stage of the semi-finals in the three competitions in which they were involved this season: in the League Cup against Manchester City, in the FA Cup against Chelsea, and in the Europa League against Sevilla.
Manchester United has one of the most impressive showcases in football with 68 titles acquired: 66 major titles and two Division 242 titles, making them the most successful club in the history of English football. It was with Sir Alex Ferguson that the club won the most titles (38), more than half of the club’s record.
Colors and coats of arms
Over the years, as under Newton Heath, the club have played in a number of different colors, the most recognizable is the half yellow and green jersey worn from 1878 to 189244, then again between 1894 and 1896 this outfit was revised as an away jersey in the early 1990s. Other outfits worn by Newton Heath include a red and white jersey (1892-1894) or a simple white jersey (1896-1902) worn with blue shorts44. In 1902, in conjunction with the name change to Manchester United, the club changed their colors to the traditional red jerseys, white shorts and black socks, which has since become the standard for most Man Utd home shirts. The most notable exception in this regard is the jersey the team wore to the 1909 Cup Final against Bristol City, which is in white with a “V” running down the bottom44. This design was tried again in the 1920s, before United reverted to their all-red jersey, as well as for the 2009-2010 season to celebrate the club’s 100th year, at Old Trafford45.
Outer outfits are usually white with black shorts and white socks44, but other colors are used, including a blue and white striped from 1903 to 1916, another black in 1994 and 2003, and a blue and silver outfit in 2000. One of the most famous, but short-lived, by far is the gray used in 1995-1996, which was dropped after the team failed to win a single match with it. At half-time during a game against Southampton, when United are already at an unfavorable 3-0 score, they put on their blue and white third shirts, but ultimately lost 3-1. According to the players, the gray is not visible enough, which has led to the weak results46. Another famous Manchester United jersey is a white reversible with black sleeves and gold trim on one side and gold with black trim on the other. This jersey is the last one created by Umbro for the club before the change with Nike. It is used to celebrate the 100 years of the club under the name of Manchester United.
The third outfit is traditionally all blue in homage to the victorious team at the 1968 European Cup except for a yellow jersey worn in the early 1970s, said blue and white striped, 1996 outfit, which proves to be a predilection for fans, and a white tee shirt with black and red from 2004. United also used what was originally used in training as their third shirt, having adopted an all-black shirt in the 1998- season. 1999 and a dark blue and brown jersey in 2001 for the matches against PSV Eindhoven and Southampton.
For the 2009/2010 season, Manchester United’s home shirt is red with a black scapular on the chest. The club logo is located on a black coat of arms of the same shape on the left side of the V, while the Nike logo is in white on the right side, the AIG logo is also white. In recognition of the 100th anniversary of the opening of Old Trafford Stadium, a book label “The Theater of Dreams Since 1910” is attached to the side seam. The domicile is worn with white shorts with red stripes on the sides of both legs, and black socks with a red scapular on the calf45. While the new away jersey is by far the most recent imagined, black with a blue scapular on the chest and the club logo on a blue crest. Like the home, the logos are both in white. The outer shorts are also in black with blue stripes on the sides, while the socks are black with a blue chevron on the calf. The most recent third jersey is in royal blue, with the logos also in white. Around the club badge, which is on a blue shield, the words “May 29th 1968 40th Anniversary” are embroidered. Unlike other jerseys, the letters “MUFC” are on the back of the collar, while the inside of the collar is decorated with the Manchester City coat of arms, in a design inspired by the tickets used for the Cup final. ‘Europe 1968. The third jersey is worn with shorts and blue socks.
Manchester United’s crest has been altered a few times, but the basic shape remains the same. The badge is derived from the coat of arms of the city of Manchester. The devil on the club’s badge comes from the nickname ‘The Red Devils’, which was adopted in the early 1960s after Matt Busby heard it in reference to the all-red color of neighbor Salford City Reds. In the late 1960s, the Devil began to be included on club programs and scarves, before finally being incorporated into the club badge in 1970, holding an incomparable trident. In 1998 the badge was redesigned once again, this time removing the words “Football Club”.
The player with the most appearances in the Manchester jersey is Welsh midfielder Ryan Giggs, with 963 games played. The top scorer in the club’s history is England striker Wayne Rooney, who scored 253 goals for the Red Devils. The youngest player to wear the Mancunian tunic was David Gaskell, aged 16 and 19 days, on October 24, 1956. The oldest was Welsh Billy Meredith, then 46 years and 271 days old, on May 7, 1921.
When the club was founded, Newton Heath played their home games on a small pitch at North Road in Newton Heath. However, visiting teams often complain about the state of the ground. The changing rooms also don’t look great, located a ten-minute walk away in The Three Crowns pub on Oldham Road. They were then moved to the Shears Hotel, another pub on Oldham Road, but a change is needed if the club is to continue in the League.
The Heathens remained at Borth Road for fifteen years, from 1878 to 1893, a year after entering the Football League, before moving to Bank Street near Clayton. The new terrain isn’t much better than a few tufts of grass, sand to the surface, and clouds of smoke coming from the factory next door. On one occasion, Walsall Swifts club even refuse to play, conditions being so bad. A layer of sand was put in by the gardeners and the visitors were finally convinced to play, eventually losing 14-0. They will protest the result, citing the bad conditions as the reason for their loss and the match will be replayed. The conditions weren’t much better the second time around, and Wallsall’s team lost again, but this time only 9-0.
In 1902, the club was close to bankruptcy and the stadium was closed by bailiffs due to its insolvency. The club were saved at the last minute by captain Harry Stafford, who managed to raise enough money to pay the club for the next game at Bristol City, and found temporary ground in Harpurhey for the next home game against Blackpool.
Following Davies’ investment, the new Manchester United finally have a passable ground.
Six weeks before Manchester United’s first FA Cup in April 1909, Old Trafford was named the home of Manchester United, following the purchase of the necessary land for around 60,000 pounds. Architect Archibald Leitch was hired by President John Henry Davies, with a budget of £ 30,000 for construction. The original plans indicate that the stadium should contain around 100,000 people, although this is reduced to 80,000. The first match is played on February 19, 1910 against Liverpool and results in a 4-3 defeat.
The last fit-out was completed in 2006 when the northeast and northwest sectors were opened, allowing the current record of 76,098, to 104 seats of the stadium’s maximum capacity. A reorganization of the stadium took place in 2009, lowering the stadium to 75,957, ie 255 fewer seats.
The number of seats then increased to 75,643, the current capacity.
Training and training center
The Cliff was Manchester United’s first training center but also serves as a stadium for the club’s lower division teams. He is based in Broughton, in the town of Salford. The field has been used since 1948 by the club and was bought from its owner in 1951. It has been hosting the games of the reserve team and the academy since that day. The stadium even had the privilege of being lit before the Old Trafford stadium in 1952. It will be abandoned in favor of the Trafford Training Center in 1999, Sir Alex Ferguson asking for a quieter and more withdrawn place to be able to train his players.
Aon is Manchester United’s main sponsor, and as part of the sponsorship, their logo is displayed on the front of the club’s jersey and a plethora of other merchandise. The deal was announced by Manchester United CEO David Gill on June 3, 200956,57, with the contract starting June 1, 2010 for a record value of € 92 million58. The former sponsor had been AIG since 2006. On January 21, 2009, it was announced that AIG did not wish to renew their contract at the end of the operation in May 201059.
The club only had five jersey sponsors. The first was Sharp, who sponsored the club from 1982 to 2000, in one of England’s longest and most lucrative sponsorship deals.60,61 The logo will be 17 years under the Mancunian colors. Vodafone then resumed initially for four years and 30 million pounds62 before re-stacking on February 11, 2000, with the sponsorship starting at the start of the 2000-2001 season60,61, and finally in December 2003, the sponsorship was extended. four years with Vodafone agreeing to pay £ 36 million over the four years 2004-2008.63 However, on 23 November 2005, Vodafone announced that it was terminating the contract in May 2006 in order to focus on their sponsorship. Champions League64. The third was AIG who by beating a new record £ 56.5 million, a record broken by the new sponsor Aon, became the jersey sponsor of the Red Devils until May 3, 2010. Today Chevrolet is the jersey sponsor of Manchester United .
Advertising first appeared at Old Trafford in 1975 in the form of billboards around the stadium. The same year, the club signs a contract with its first sports equipment supplier, Admiral Sportswear65, which will be followed by Adidas66 (1980-1992), Umbro67 (1992-2002), Nike68 (2002-201569) and again Adidas for 950 million d ‘euros (2015-202570).
The club began selling merchandise with the opening of a souvenir shop in Old Trafford in 1967. A year later, it registered the “Manchester United” trademark.
In 1986, the Old Trafford Museum72 was the first of its kind in England. In 2001, it was the second most visited museum in Manchester behind the Museum of Science and Industry73.
Manchester United diversified its sales resources and launched its first catalog of derivative products in 1988. Megastores of more than 15,000 m2 opened in Old Trafford, Singapore and Dublin in 200074. The online sale of products via the website of the club created in 1996 represents 6 to 7% of the club’s income, or 15 million euros75. Like AC Milan or Real Madrid, MU is also trying to conquer other markets, particularly in America, Asia and South Africa76 by regularly organizing tours77.
Diversification is also done through the products offered. Thus, in addition to the traditional shirts and clothing bearing the club’s image, supporters can buy jewelry, board games78 or even take out a loan or insurance79. Unfortunately, the end of the partnership with AIG risks compromising some of its activities80.
In July 2012, Manchester United filed for listing on Wall Street, hoping to raise $ 100 million in the markets.
In November 2020, Manchester United announced a partnership with Stonewall, a UK charity for the inclusion of LGBT + people. This agreement aims to promote diversity and inclusion and to help non-LGBT + employees to support and promote inclusive cultures84.
Manchester United in popular culture
Before World War II, few English supporters traveled for away matches due to time, cost and logistical issues, such as the lack of cars among the population, especially among the workers. As Manchester City and Manchester United alternate their home games every weekend, many Mancunians will see United one week and City the next, but after the war the rivalry between the two clubs grows stronger.
In 1957, United won the championship with an average of over 45,000 spectators. After the Munich disaster in 1958, the number of MU supporters increased further. For fifty years, MU has also had one of the highest spectator averages, including during the 1974-1975 season in the second division85.
From the end of the 1990s, concerns increased about the possibility of the club being redeemed. The group of supporters IMUSA (Independent Manchester United Supporters’ Association86) is very active and opposed to the takeover of the club by Rupert Murdoch in 1998. Another pressure group, “Shareholders United Against Murdoch87” (which became “Shareholders United” then “Manchester United Supporters ‘Trust’) is founded to encourage supporters to buy club shares to gain more leverage over decisions like ticket pricing and to prevent buyouts. However, that does not prevent Malcolm Glazer from becoming the majority shareholder of the club. Many supporters are furious and found a new club called “F.C. United of Manchester”. Despite this scandal, the number of people going to meetings continues to increase.
The lack of atmosphere at Old Trafford is sometimes mentioned. Thus, Roy Keane, then captain, complained in 2000 following a victory against Dynamo Kiev which nevertheless qualified the club for the next round of the Champions League88,89. On January 1, 2008, trainer Alex Ferguson who likened the atmosphere to a funeral90,91. But more recently, Alex Ferguson said he was delighted with his supporters, after the 1-0 victory over FC Barcelona at Old Trafford, which sent United to the 2008 Champions League final in Moscow, saying fans were ” absolutely brilliant ”and that the audience“ got us on the right track ”. More recently the match against Chelsea shows that the supporters know how to respond when asked.
In addition, Manchester United fans are still very hostile towards the Glazer family. In March 2010, a group of supporters known as the “Red Knights” and led by Jim O’Neill, chief economist at Goldman Sachs bank, formed to protest against the club’s financial management and attempt to take control. However, this movement ended because of many internal divisions.
Historically, Manchester United’s closest have been its main rivals such as Liverpool, Manchester City, Arsenal92.93 and Leeds United94.95. Currently, most fans see Liverpool as their main competitor, thanks to the success of both clubs, while another majority also see City as a main opponent in the making.
The rivalry against Liverpool began in the 1960s when the two clubs were among the strongest in England, and have since been in competition almost every season.
The rivalry with Manchester City dates back to the days of Newton Heath in the 1890s and has remained keen as the two clubs compete in the same division for most of their history. Although traditional between Yorkshire and Lancashire, the rivalry with Leeds United begins during the late 1960s, when Leeds emerges as a strong club and continues through the 1970s and 1980s, reaching its peak when Leeds scramble to United the title of champion in 1992, but the recent twists and turns of the peacocks make them a club of less importance to the fans.
Manchester United FC Ladies was founded in 1977 under the name Manchester United Supporters Club Ladies. They joined the League’s three counties in 1979, and became the founder of the North West Regional Women’s Football League in 1989, when they officially changed its name to Manchester United Ladies FC. Although they were relegated from the league in their first season, they were promoted again the following season and won the league title in 1995-96. For the 1998-99 season, the team joined the Northern Combination, two divisions below the FA Women’s Premier League. They will officially be placed under the Manchester United FC banner at the start of the 2001-2002 season, but they are controversially dissolved before the start of the 2004-2005 season for financial reasons. The decision was met with much criticism given the profits made by Manchester United, and also the fact that the teams were taken out of all leagues before the players themselves were informed of the decision. However, the club is still involved in women’s football, offering guidance to young girls under 1697.
For the 2018-2019 season of the FA’s Women Championship, Manchester United has founded a professional women’s team called Manchester United Women98. Casey Stoney, former England international, is appointed team manager. Alex Greenwood, ex-Liverpool player playing as left-back, was named team captain at the age of 24. The first league game ended with a clear 12-0 victory over club Aston Villa.
On April 20, 2019, the team was crowned second division champion for its first year of existence, after a large 7-0 victory against the Crystal Palace team, and was therefore promoted to the first division.
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